Přehled gramatiky

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LANGUAGE SPOT 1-53
1) REFLEXIVE PRONOUMS
COMPLETE THE TABLE.
subject pronoun reflexive pronoun
I myself
you (singular) yourself
he himself
she herself
it itself
we ourselves
you (plural) yourselves
they themselves
2) EXPRESING A WISH
I´D LIKE TO
I WANT TO
example
I´d like to travel.
or
I want to travel.
travel
do something interesting
see the world
practise foreign languages
do something different
meet new people
have a break
do nothing for a year
earn a lot of money
learn more about other countries
have a long holiday
leave home
visit some friends in Italy
go to warm countries
have an easy time
3) EXPRESSING INTERESTS
GOOD AT
INTERESTED AT



sports.
I´m
not very
good at
practical things.
Heś
quite
interested in
languages.
Sheś
very

car repairs.



art.
4) PREPOSITION
Put these words in the correct tables.
motorcycle foot spaceship horse plane car ship sledge

--------------

BOAT
BY
--------------

LORRY
IN A
--------------

SUBMARINE

--------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BYCYCLE
BY
-------------

TRAIN
ON A
-------------

-------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ON
FOOT

5) VERBS OF TRANSPORT
Match these verbs to the correct form of transport:
Ride Walk Sail Fly Drive
Example
fly: plane , spaceship
Say how people travelled:
Example
Captain Gallagher flew round the world.

6) EXPRESING AN AMBITION : WOULD LIKE TO
Complete the table with these worbs:
would´d wouldn´t like to
What
-----------------you
---------------------
do?

-----------------

travel round the world.
I
-----------------
like to
have a big car.

-----------------

be a pop star.

7) POSSESIVE PRONOUMS
Complete the sentences:
Example
This is my bag. Itś mine.
That is your bag. Itś -------.
These are her suitcases. Theyŕe ------.
Those are his suitcases. Theyŕe ------.
This is our van. Itś -------.
This is their lugggage. Itś -------.

Whose is this (are these )?
Itś hers. or Theyŕe theirs. or Itś mine. etc.

8) QUESTION TAGS
A
Example
You like a chalenge, don´t you?
This isn´t our train, ---------?
That man has got a suitcase the same as mine , -------?
Hmmm. Thatś Carrutherś suitcase, ----------?
Now you won´t be able to go , ---------?
B
Make a rule for questionn tags:
- Which verb do you use?
- When is it positive?
- When is it negative?

9) THE CONDITIONAL TENSE
Complete the table with these words:
would ´d wouldn´t
I


YOU
----------
TAKE THE TYPEWRITER
HE
----------
LEAVE THE PENS
SHE
----------

WE


THEY







take?
WHAT
-----
You
get rid of?

-----

do?



leave?


10) IF CLAUSES 1
This is the if clause: This is the main clause:
If we GO from Dover to Ostende, it WILL TAKE 3 hours and 45 minutes.
If we TAKE the hovercraft, it WILL BE quicker.

- What tense is used in the IF CLAUSE?
- What tense is used in the MAIN CLAUSE?

11) IF CLAUSE 2
A) Notice the tenses:
If you WERE on a hijacket plane, WOULD YOU ATTACK the hijackers?
If a robber attacked me in dark street, I WOULD SCREAM.

- What tense is used in the IF CLAUSE?
- What tense is used in the MAIN CLAUSE?

Write your answers to the quiz in full.

Example
If I WAS on a hijacked plane, I would try to escape.

B) Why are the tenses different?
Clue: Are things going to happen?

C) What are the short forms?
Which of these are the short forms of the conditional tense?
Positive (I WOULD) = Iĺl , I´Id , I´d , I w´d
Negative (I WOULD NOT) = I´dn´t , I won´t , I wouldn´t , I´Idn´t

12) GERUNDS 1
I can play tennis.
What kind of word is ´play´, a verb or a noun?

I like play playing tennis.
What kind of word is ´playing´, a verb or a noun?

We call words like ´playing´, GERUNDS.
Here are some more: Skiing, swimming, skating, singing, dancing, climbing, reading, sleeping, eating.
- What do the other members of the group like doing?
Example
Bruce likes climbing.

13) WARNING WITH CONDITIONS
IF they MOVE ,the van might/could fall.
IF they STAY still, another car might/could hit them.
Say what might/could happen, if...
Here are some ideals to help you:
The van might fall. Sue might fall out.
Another car migh hit them. The van might catch fire.
They might be killed


14) NEED + GERUND
Can you replace the brake shoes, please?
The brake shoes need REPLACING.

Can you check the brakes, please?
The brakes need CHECKING.

Use: replace, repaint, repair, straighten.

Example
The headlights need . . .

15) PAIR(S) OF
Some words are always plural (jeans, trousers).
When we want to say how many, we must use: pair(s) of

1 pair of jeans
3 -------- socks
5 -------- knickers
2 -------- tights
1 -------- boots
1 -------- swimming trunks
4 -------- pyjamas
5 -------- trousers

Example
A In my suitcase I´ve got one pairs of jeans.
B In my suitcase I´ve got one pairs of jeans and two T-shirts.
C In my suitcase I´ve got one pair of jeans, two T-shirts and three pairs of socks.

16) SIZES
Ask: jeans
What size shoes do you take?
shirts
or
What is your waist measurement?
chest

17) GERUNDS 2
Eating

more difficult

Taking a shower
is
easier
in space
Cutting food



Look at the spelling:
eat eating
take taking
cut cutting
How do the verbs change when you add -ing?

Make gerunds for these verbs:
skate, ski, swim, box, dance, keep fit, run, get dressed, race, ride, change, spell, shop, clean

18) RELATIVE PRONOUNS : WHO , WHICH , THAT
A) Put in the correct word to complete the rule.
WHO WHICH THAT
We use ------ for things and animals.
We use ------ for people.
We use ------ for people, thinngs and animals.


clothes

helped us.

things
who
worked at the holiday
centre.
These are the
animals
that
we took with us.

tools
which
we met on our journey.

places

we saw in Wales.

people

we visited.

19) THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
Look at these sentences. Which ones happened first?

Cleo was unemployed.
Cleo had been a pop singer with a group.
Cleo met Nina outside the job centre.
Cleo had gone to the job centre to look for a new job.

Complete this statement with one of the following:
After Before At thwe same time as
We use the PAST PERFECT to show something happened --------- the PAST.

20) EXPRESSING REGRET : I WISH I HAD/HADN´T
What tense is this?
I wish I hadn´t taken this job?
I wish I had stayed at home.

21) DESCRIBING FEELING AND LOOKS

feel
well

´m feeling
---------
I
don´t feel
---------

´m don´t feeling
---------
*****************************
*****************************
*****************************
He
looks
angry
She
doesn´t look
--------
*****************************
***************************
*****************************
--------
You
look
happy

don´t look
worried

22) PREPOSITIONS
on, in or at
a) Whatś ------- the box tonight?
b) We have lunch at 1 o´clock.
c) Whatś ------- ITV at 9 o´clock?
d) Look ------- the programme guide.
e) Programmes ----- BBC2 finish -------- half past one -------- the morning.
f) Thereś a film ------- now.
g) Whoś ------ the play -------- Channel4 -------- ten o´clock?

23) NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
Example
James V was Maryś father.
James V died when Mary was only one week old.

James V, who was Maryś father, died when mary was only one week old.

24) RULES

f----------
Smoking in cinemas is
p----------

i-----------

You are not -----
to
smoke
It is i---------

in
You ------- not

cinemas.

25) GERUNDS 3
Informal : You are not able to smoke in cinemas. You mustn´t smoke in cinemas.
Formal: Smokong in cinemas is forbidden. Smoking in cinemas is prohibited.

Give informal version.
Example
Smoking in cinemas is forbidden.
You mustn´t smoke in cinemas.

Crossing on the red man is prohibited.
You mustn´t cross on the red man.

26) INDIRECT SPEECH
Direct speech
´My nameś Jim Carlson. I work for the North Australia Bank. I´ve lived in Paris for three years now. I lived in
England before that. In fact this parcel is for some friends there. But it will be heavy to post.´
´I can take it for you. We´re going to England.´

Indirect speech
He said his name was Jim Carlson and that he worked for the North Autralia Bank. He said he had lived in Paris
for three years. He said he had lived in England once and that he had a parcel for some friends there, but it would
be too heavy to post. I told him I could take it for him, because we were going to England.

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
present simple
past simple
present continous
--------------
present perfect
--------------
future
--------------
past
--------------
conditional
--------------

27) INDIRECT QUESTION
Have you anything to declare?
I asked him whether he had (got) anything to declare.

Where did you buy this camera?
I asked him where he had bought the camera.

28) INDIRECT COMMANDS AND REQUESTS
Find the direct requests and commands for these:
I asked him to open his suitcase.
I told him to come with me.

How do you make indirect commands and requests?

29) EXPRESSING POSSIBILITY

would --------.
If I lived on a tropical island, I
would be able to ---------.

wouldn´t have to ---------.


would --------.
If you lived on a tropical island, you
wouldn´t be able to --------------.

would have to -----------.

30) EXPRESSING POSSIBLE DANGERS
You
might
get
scratched




bitten


could

sunburnt
by-----------.



cut




burnt




stung



might
cut

You
could
scratch
yourself on -------.


burn


31) WEATHER FOORECAST



sunny.



-------.



-------.

ś going to
be
foggy.
It
will

fine.



-------.



warm.



--------.



dry.

It
ś going tto
---------.

will
rain.





thunderstorms.
There
ś going to
be
some
--------.

will


snow.




---------.

32) THE PASSIVE
Many trees are killed by disease.
Now the forests are threatened by a greater danger.

Example
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide/emit/factories, power stations and cars.
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are emitted by factories, power stations and cars.
A) Trees/damage/acid rain.
B) Poisonous oxidants/drop onto trees/rain and snow.
C) Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide/turn into sulphuric acid and nitric acid/water vapour.
D) Forests/destroy
E) Sulphuric acid and nitric acid/turn into poisonouus oxidants/sunlight
F) Pollution/blow from one country to another/wind

33) CLASSIFYING
example
What is a beech?
Itś a kind of tree.

34) SUGGESTING ADVICE

´d better ...
I thing we
should ...

ought to ...

Example
look for some food.
I think we´d better look for some food.

Clues:
make a plan of action
try to find a village
explore the island
build a signal fire
look for some water
build a hut
swim to another island
catch some fish
swim to the boat
make some weapons
try to make a map of island
shout for help
go swimming
go to the highest point of the island

35) EXPRESSING REGRET
We should have stayed near the ship.
We shouldn´t have left the ship.

Clues:
make a plan of action
try to find a village
explore the island
build a signal fire
look for some water
build a hut
swim to another island
catch some fish
swim to the boat
make some weapons
try to make a map of island
shout for help
go swimming
go to the highest point of the island

36) COMPASS POINTS

NOUN ADJECTIVE
north northern
south southern
east eastern
west western
north-west north-western
south-west south-western
north-east north-eastern
south-east south-eastern

37) DESCRIBING SHAPES
Itś shaped like a foot.
Itś foot-shaped.

Example:
(pohled ve tvaru srdce )
a heart-shaped card

38) LARGE NUMBERS

2,675,891 = two million, six hundred and seventy-five thousand, eight houndred and ninety-one
406,873,241 = four hundred and six million, eight hundred and seventy-tree thousand, two hundred and forty-one

Say these in full:
3877,764,034
98,562,607
6,541,987,000
87,000,000
78,000,000,000

39) GIVING ADVICE
should
keep the wound clean.
You ought to
put a plaster on the cut.

keep your arm in a sling.

have an anti-tetanus injection.
Make sure you
have an X-ray.

go to the doctor.

take some pain killers.

40) EXPRESSING FREQUENCY
Take the medicine
twice a day (x2 pd)

four times a day (x4 pd)

Say these in both ways:
x6 pd
x2 pd
x8 pd
x1 pd (note: once aday)
x3 pd

41) USED TO

She used to count her money.
She counted the money regulary, but she doesn´t anymore.

Say what the old woman used to do.
Example
live in the old house
She usedd to live in old house.

eat only bread and cheese
wear old clothes
live alone
hide her money under the bed
save all her money
count her money at midnight
drive visitors away

Example
I don´t livve in Canada any more..
He used to live in Canada.

42) HAVE SOMETHING DONE

The owner ough to have the window mended.
The own ought to mend the window.

Say what the owner ought to have done.
Use: repair, replace, clean, repaint, decorate.
The roof got a hole in it.
The kitchen window is broken.
The paint is comming off the doors.
The light bulb in the hall is broken.
The pipes under the sink are leaking.
The bath is cracked.
The wallpaper is coming of the walls.
The carpets are dirty.
The cushions have got holes in.
The curtains are torn.

43) CHANCES
His chances (to die at work) is 9000 to 1.
The farmworker is in a high-risk job with 1 in 9000 riisk of being killed at work.

What are the chances?

44) COMPARING ACTIVITIES
Workinng on ffarm



rock climbing.
Selling office
equipment



living near a nuclear
power station
Smoking

MORE

being bitten by a
snake.
Drinkinng wine



working on farm.
Living near a nuclear
power station
IS

Dangerous than
selling office
equipment.
Being vitten by a
snake



driving a tractor.
Driving a tractor

LESS

flying.
Flying



riding a motorbike.
Rock climbing



smoking
Riding a motorbike



drinking wine.
















45) ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
Often Always Never Sometimes Seldom Frequently

The farmworker always rides a motorbike to work.
The businessman never rides a motorbike to work.

smoke
travel abroad
work in an office
drive a tractor
go rock climbing
play football
drink wine
travel by air

46) RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH WHERE
Stonehenge was a temple.
People worshipped the Sun at Stonehenge.
Stonehenge was a temple, where people worshipped the Sun.

Cues:
temple/people/worship the Sun
observatory/astronomers/study the stars
place/witches/make human sacrifices
cemtery/ancient Britons/bury their dead kings
palace/giants/live
temple/people/worship the stars

47) DIMENSIONS
A tower 30 metres high.
A road 400 metres long.
A street 12 metres wide.
A valley 40 metres deep.

48) QUESTION TAGS
Example
A) Where was Carstairs put in prison?
B) It was in Australia, wasn´t it?

49) DATES AND FESTIVALS
Write the names of the months in full.
Jan 22 = January the twenty-second.

50) TIME PREPOSITIONNS : IN, ON, AT
IN, ON, AT
Christmas Eve - on
Christmas -
the twentieth century -
December 26 -
the morning -
Wednesday -
1987 -
nine oćlock -
January -
-------------------------------
- days
- parts of the day
- years
- times of day
- centuries
- festivals
- months

51) THE PRESENT CONTINOUS WITH FUTURE MEANING

Tomorrow morning I ------ ------- to church.
On Boxing Day the neighbours ------ ------ in.
In the afternoon your Dad and Ken ------- ------- to the football match.
On Boxing Day Sarah --------- ----------- some friends.
- What tense is it?
- How do we know it has a future meaning?

52) ADVERBS
1 I feel (tired/tiredly) today.
2 I can´t thing very (clear/clearly) today.
3 Do you get depressed (easy/easily)?
4 He has become very (irritable/irritably).
5 You were very (cheerful/cheerfully) yesterday.
6 Old people forget things (easy/easily).

53) LIKELY TO
Example
When you are in love, you are likely to feel happy.
A
B
are in love
make mistakes
take exercise
feel healthy
are away from home
get sunburnt
are in negative phase
die of lung caster
lie in the sun
feel happy
eat a lot
be fit
smoke
feel hoomesick
sleep well
get fat
are on a critical day
feel depressed
the weather is bad
things go wrong